Charge Controller (by type)
MPPT or Maximum Power point Tracking is an algorithm that’s included in charge controllers used for extracting maximum available power from PV solar module under certain conditions. With MPPT charge controllers you get 15 to 30% extra yield as compared to PWM. To fully exploit the potential of the MPPT controller, the array voltage should be substantially higher than the battery voltage. The MPPT controller is the solution of choice for higher power systems (because of the lowest overall system cost due to smaller cable cross sectional areas). The MPPT controller will also harvest substantially more power when the solar cell temperature is low (below 45°C), or very high (above 75°C), or when irradiance is very low.
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)
Although still in use, yet it’s an older technology as the total yield is about 25% to 30% lesser than Quality MPPT charge controller. The PWM charge controller is a good low cost solution for small systems only, when solar cell temperature is moderate to high (between 45°C and 75°C).